The action Evaluation, Monitoring and Conservation of Marine Biodiversity (REVIMAR) is coordinated by the Ministry of the Environment, and has as objective is to assess, monitor and promote the conservation of marine biodiversity, through a ecossystem approach, aiming to establish the scientific basis and integrated actions able to support policies and actions for the conservation and the joint management strategies for sustainable use of marine living resources.
This action was implemented due to:
1. The need to continue to assess the potential sustainability of living resources in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). It was initially begun by the REVIZEE Program, especially with regards to possible gaps left by that program - in order to implement more effective management systems, to ensure the sustainable use and conservation of fishery resources;
2. The urgent need to implement ongoing monitoring of the main fish stocks, in order to allow for the steady generation of information essential to the conservation and rational use of fish stocks; and
3. Ensure the conservation and monitoring of existing ecosystems in coastal and marine areas.
The Executive Committee REVIMAR was created by Ordinance No 233/MB of September 14, 2005, by the Navy Commander and CIRM Coordinator.
In 1988, Brazil ratified the United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea - UNCLOS - on December 12, 1982. Under the terms of this treaty, the country undertook a series of rights and duties, among which we highlight those related to determining the allowable catch levels of living resources within the Exclusive Economic Zone - EEZ and ensuring the preservation of EEZ living resources and that they are not endangered by fishing efforts.
In recent years, Brazil, through the MMA, has been promoting initiatives for integrated and participatory management of its marine area, seeking, among other objectives, to increase knowledge about population dynamics and assess of fish stocks. Among the initiatives, we highlight the REVIZEE Program, begun in 1995 and officially shut down in Sep/2006. The Program REVIZEE can be considered as the largest integrated effort developed in the country to survey the potential sustainable harvest living resources in the EEZ.
Results from the REVIZEE Program were clear about the reality of Brazilian marine fishing: there are limitations as to the possibility of new fish stocks sustaining a large increase in fish production in Brazilian water.
The seemingly paradoxical aspect here is the coexistence between the reality of stocks with low exploitation potential, subjected to overfishing and stock depletion for most traditional species, and the over-capitalization in the fishing sector, characterized by excessive numbers of boats and fitting equipment allocated to some types of fishing. In the case of the sardine-true, the combination of excessive fishing efforts and unfavorable environmental conditions accelerated the collapse trend, in the overall production of this particular fishing resource in Southeast/South of Brazil.
The results of the REVIZEE Program are not limited, however, to warnings about the availability and condition of stocks of the country's main resources. Knowledge about marine biodiversity, especially in deep waters, has undergone a major expansion, with new knowledge about the ecosystems of the continental slope (down to 2000 meters deep), generating new information, which is crucial in supporting the management of fishing activities. The coastal and marine areas are home to numerous species many of which occur only in our waters and some endangered.
The action REVIMAR contributes to the knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity.
Based on the results obtained by the REVIZEE Program, the Action REVIMAR objective is to assess, monitor and promove the conservation of marine biodiversity, through a ecossystem approach, aiming to establish the scientific basis and integrated actions able to support policies and actions for the conservation and the joint management strategies for sustainable use of marine living resources.
- Establish a monitoring program for marine species, especially those in vulnerable situations, threatened and over-exploited;
- Maintain continuous assessment of the 6 Conservation Units reef ecosystems monitored by Reef Check method;
- Monitor 100% of mangrove areas mapped (1.225.million ha in 2011);
- To assess the conservation status of marine species, aiming to update the lists of endangered species;
- Doubling the number of Action Plans developed for marine species threatened with extinction;
- Enlarge to 4% of the EEZ and MT (3,5 million km2) of the total consolidated marine protected areas; and
- Increase by 20% annually scheduled operations oversight of the use of living marine resources, aiming at the protection and sustainable exploitation.
The identification and measurement of aspects related to REVIMAR, done periodically, obey the following:
|ADMEASUREMENT||UNIT OF MEASURE||REFERENCE|
Monitoring program of the marine species,especially those in vulnerable situations, threatened and over-exploited.
Monitoring of Protected Areas of reef ecosystems.
Monitoring mangrove ecosystems.
Action Plans for marine species endangered designed and implemented.
Percentage of marine protected areas.
Operations planned monitoring of the use of marine living resources.
REVIMAR is an action established in the VIII Sectorial Plan for the Resources of the Sea (VIII PSRM). It is up to the Inter-ministerial Commission for the Resources of the Sea (CIRM) to supervise its their activities, through the Subcommission for the Sectorial Plan for the Resources of the Sea.
The activities involved in this action, on a national scale, are conducted by an Executive Committee, made of representatives from:
- Ministry of the Environment (MMA) - (Coordinator of REVIMAR);
- Ministry of Foreign Relations (MRE);
- Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA);
- Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI);
- Ministry of Education (MEC);
- Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture (MPA);
- Brazilian Navy (MB);
- Secretariat of the Inter-ministerial Commission for the Resources of the Sea (SECIRM);
- National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq);
- Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME);
- Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA);
- Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio);
- Almirante Paulo Moreira Institute of Marine Studies (IEAPM); and
- Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS).
In this context, at the national level, it is up to:
- CIRM to oversee REVIMAR's activities, through the Subcommission of the Sectorial Plan for the Resources of the Sea;
- MMA under the terms established by the VIII PSRM - to coordinate matters related to implementing REVIMAR, and even propose priorities for the projects within it.
The operational strategy is based on "Management Units", corresponding to stocks, multi-species fishing and other categories appropriate to fishery management. The management units may be national, regional or local.
The Scientific Subcommittees will be organized according to the selected management units, and will focus on assessing the status of the underlying stocks, monitoring them and issuing recommendations to managers.
The basic data for the activities conducted by the Scientific Subcommittees (catch, fishing effort, frequency distribution of lengths and prices of first marketing) are provided by fishery statistical systems, implemented by IBAMA/MMA, MPA and partners.
The Scientific Subcommittees will be comprised of experts in fishery resources and related areas associated with the Management Units.
Management Units are listed below:
b. Platform Elasmobranchs;
c. Reef resources;
d. Platform Demersal Teleosts;
e. Small and Medium-sized Pelagics;
f. Land crab and Guaiamum;
g. Fisheries in Bays and Estuaries;
h. Prospective Resources;
l. Tunas and Related products; and
m. Deep Demersal.
1. Financial Resources
The Ministry of Environment includes the REVIMAR Action into the Federal Government's Multiyear Plan (PPA). The resources needed to implement the action may be complemented by other ministries and institutions involved, and made possible through the competition of research funding agencies, national and international, and partnerships with the private sector and civil society.
2. Material Resources
Material resources necessary for the development of this Action will be made possible from funds provided by the PPA, and offerings by member institutions, by providing their existing infrastructure, including the operation of floating craft, for biological research, when it proved necessary.
3. Human Resources
The REVIMAR action should use the technical capacity of MMA's Centres of Expertise, as well as the country's educational and research institutions, promoting the training of human resources in underserved areas. Participation, both nationally and internationally, of funding agencies, particularly the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq/MCTI) is essential for the recruitment of researchers at various levels and for stimulating the production of knowledge.