Antarctica plays a key role in global natural ecosystems. It is the main thermal regulator of the planet, controlling atmospheric and oceanic circulations, and generally influencing the climate and living conditions on Earth. In addition, it holds the largest reserves of ice (90%) and freshwater (70%) on the planet and untold mineral and energy resources.
Over the past decades, important scientific observations, among which are observations concerning the reduction of the ozone layer, air pollution and partial disintegration of the ice on the periphery of the continent, reveal the sensitivity of the southern polar region to global climate change.
Scientific research in the region, which Brazil has been engaged in since the late nineteenth century, is of undoubted importance for understanding the functioning of the Earth’s ecosystem. Clarifying the complex interactions between the global natural processes and the Antarctic processes is therefore essential for the preservation of life itself.
Brazil’s condition as an Atlantic country situated at relative proximity to the Antarctic region (the seventh nearest country), and the obvious or probable influences of natural phenomena that occur on that continent on our national territory, from the outset, justify Brazil’s historical interest in the southern continent.
These circumstances, as well as strategic geopolitical and economic factors led to Brazil’s joining the Antarctic Treaty in 1975, and initiating the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR) in 1982.
Brazil's entry into the so-called Antarctic Treaty System has created opportunities for the national scientific community to participate in activities which, along with space and seafloor exploration, are the last great frontiers of international science.
In the context outlined above, the Brazilian Antarctic Program establishes how Brazil will participate in scientific explorations of this continent, in view of its importance to humanity and the country.
From the first time that Brazil went to Antarctica in the summer of 1982-83, to the present day, the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR) has contributed greatly to the development of Antarctic science.
PROANTAR was created in January 1982 and that same year, the Brazilian Navy (MB) acquired the Danish polar ship "Thala Dan", suitable for work in the polar regions, named after the "Barão de Teffé" Oceanographic Support Ship (NapOc).
In early December 1982, the ship stopped, for the first time, with the basic task of performing hydrographic, oceanographic and meteorological reconnaissance of areas in the northwest sector of Antarctica and select the location where the future Brazilian Station would be installed. The success of Operation Antarctica I, resulted in international recognition of our presence in Antarctica, which allowed, on 12 September 1983, the acceptance of Brazil as a Consultative Party in the Antarctic Treaty.
In Antarctic Operation II, held in the summer of 1983-84, the main tasks were transportation, site selection and deployment of the Brazilian Station. On February 6, 1984, Antarctic Station "Comandante Ferraz" (EACF) was installed, on the Keller Peninsula, Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. The first team, made up of twelve men, manned the eight EACF modules for over 32 days in the summer, leaving it deactivated until the beginning of the next operation.
The EACF was expanded to 33 modules the following year. The most important event came about in 1986 during Antarctic Operation IV, with the onset of permanent occupation of the station for 365 days a year, representing the culmination of continued and progressive development since the activities began.
The FAB, through the 1st/1st Transportation Group, which has as its mission: supporting PROANTAR on the Antarctic continent, provides essential support to the Program, with the transport of equipment, material and personnel during the entire cycle of Antarctic operations, through the C-130 aircraft - Hercules.
From OPERANTAR XXVIII, between the years 2008/2009 FAB has run ten flights a year to the Antarctic region, which provided greater flexibility when planning logistics and scientific activities developed by researchers throughout the operation.
1. The Environmental Evaluation Group - GAAm
The Environmental Evaluation Group - GAAm, created in January 1995, is part of the Brazilian Antarctic Program, along with the Advisory Group - GA and Operations Group - GO. The GAAm is coordinated by the Ministry of the Environment and includes representatives from the Ministries of Foreign Relations, Education and Sports, Navy, Science, Technology and Innovation, the coordinators of the GA and GO, and four representatives of the scientific community responsible for the areas of Oceanography, Meteorology, Biology (including pollution) and Geology.
The GAAm is responsible for compliance with the guidelines set forth in the Madrid Protocol (Protocol for the Antarctic Treaty on Environmental Protection), ratified by the Brazilian government on June 6, 1995.
The duties of the GAAm:
Assess the impact on the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems related to scientific research, operational and logistical support, tourism and any other, governmental or otherwise, including the changes in activity already under development;
Prepare the initial assessment reports, initial and comprehensive environmental impact of activities to be undertaken in Antarctica;
Point out the ways to prevent, minimize or avoid the impact of activities on the Antarctic environment;
Suggest modification, suspension or cancellation of activities that cause or threaten to cause an impact on the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems;
Establish environmental monitoring systems for the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems;
Suggest the application of procedures for situations that require an urgent response, including emergency and preventive actions in protecting the environment;
Identify the need for studies and research for understanding the Antarctic environment;
Coordinate with other national and international institutions that deal with matters related to the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems;
Coordinate with those responsible for the environmental impact assessment of Antarctic foreign programs; and
Subsidize the Subcommittee for the Brazilian Antarctic Program of the Inter-ministerial Commission for the Resources of the Sea in matters pertaining to the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems.
1.3.1 Environmental Evaluation of the Scientific Research Projects
From the first year of operation, the GAAm prioritized the evaluation of environmental impacts of projects and scientific research in Antarctica, having developed a system that includes the procedures to be adopted to meet the goals outlined by the Madrid Protocol.
In this sense, a guide to environmental impact assessment of scientific activities in Antarctica and its form, to be completed by the researcher was developed and approved within the Inter-ministerial Commission for the Resources of the Sea (CIRM). Armed with the information gathered from the project coordinators, they are subjected to a preliminary evaluation conducted by experts from the Ministry and its attached agency, the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources - IBAMA, whose result is used as input for the rapporteurs of the thematic areas, as the framework of each project.
If the resulting impact of the development project is considered less than minor or transitory impact (
If analysis of the project / activity concludes that the impact will be equal to an IMT, the opinion shall be prepared by consultants "ad hoc" and submitted to GAAm. The opinion is taken in and the GAAm prepares its conclusive report on the Initial Environmental Impact Evaluation, referring it to the Secretariat of the Inter-ministerial Commission for the Resources of the Sea (SECIRM).
On the other hand, if the environmental assessment concluded that the project will have a larger impact than an IMT, it will proceed to the Comprehensive Environmental Impact Evaluation. In this case Terms of Reference consisting of a minimum on the script content of Comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment (AIAA) will be created.
1.3.2 Environmental Assessment Activities Logistics Program and the Development of a Monitoring Program
After answering an emergency demand, the annual review of all research projects, the GAAm now has to include other tasks of paramount importance:
a) The environmental assessment of logistics activities of the program and the development of a monitoring program is a task that is still in a process of consolidation and can bring important results in terms of minimizing and mitigating the major source of impacts of the Program; and
b) The environmental monitoring program in question concerns not only subsidize the Brazilian Program with detailed information about environmental trends, but also meets strong international demand concerned with the ability to absorb impacts from the Antarctic continent.
1.3.3 Institutional Partnership
In order to achieve its mission, the Group has been supported in a systematic and efficient way by a group of experts gathered by IBAMA that officially make up the Group. This institutional partnership has been strengthened and improved every year.
Besides this, all activities are previously discussed in the PROANTAR Subcommittee, where the consolidation of institutional partnerships have contributed to the success of their activities. Foremost among these is the support of the Secretariat for PROANTAR.
1.3.4 Environmental Evaluation of Logistics Activities
The form that was developed by GAAm and is being applied to AIA, is focused on scientific activities. The logistics of supporting research are considered in the analysis of that information.
On the first set, the GAAm is developing a series of forms that serve to characterize the current infrastructure in the area. And a special form for when there is a need for improvement, and technological improvement or expansion of facilities.
1.3.5 Compatibility of Brazilian legislation with the provisions of the Madrid Protocol
Among the aspects relevant to the implementation of National Policy for Antarctic Affairs, which affects coordination by the Ministry of Foreign Relations, are the implications of ratification of the Madrid Protocol with regard to national environmental legislation.
To analyze this issue, a group was formed under the National Commission for Antarctic Affairs - CONANTAR, responsible for defining the guidelines for Antarctica , to examine the issues arising from the compatibility of the Brazilian legal framework on the environment with the provisions of the Madrid Protocol.
The group, chaired by the coordinator of GAAm and composed of representatives of the Ministries of Foreign Relations, Navy, Science, Technology and Innovation and the coordinator of the Advisory Group, examined an opinion expressed by the General Counsel of the Ministry of the Environment and concluded that there was no need to create specific legislation to meet the provisions of the Protocol.
2. Environmental Impact Evaluation for Projects and Scientific Activities in Antarctica
These references and procedures apply to projects or activities to be carried out in Antarctica in order to comply with the provisions of the Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty on Environmental Protection, known as the Madrid Protocol.
The purpose of the Protocol is to ensure the overall protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems. The agreement stipulates that any activity resulting from scientific research, tourism, logistics, governmental or otherwise, including any change in an activity is subject to an environmental impact assessment.
As a Consultative Party to the Antarctic Treaty and having ratified the Madrid Protocol, the Brazilian government has been working towards meeting their guidelines, even before it became effective, which occurred on January 14, 1998, after ratification by all Parties to the Treaty.
2.2 Madrid Protocol
Among the principles governing the protection of the environment, the Protocol establishes in its article 3, that activities in the area of the Antarctic Treaty are "organized and executed based on sufficient information to allow prior assessments, and an assessment based the possible impact on the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems" and should consider, among other things:
- the importance of the activity, particularly its scope, duration and intensity;
- the cumulative impact of the activity, both by its own effects and in conjunction with other activities in the Antarctic Treaty area;
- the detrimental effect that the activity may have on any other activity in the Antarctic Treaty area;
- the availability of appropriate technology and processes to ensure safe operations in the environment;
- the existence of means of monitoring major environmental parameters, as well as elements of the ecosystem in order to identify and flag any negative effect on the activity and determine necessary changes to operational processes, in light of monitoring results or a better understanding of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems; and
- the existence of means to intervene quickly and effectively in cases of accidents, especially those that affect the environment.
Art. 3 also states that the following should be avoided:
- negative effects on climate or weather patterns;
- significant negative effects on air or water quality;
- significant changes in the atmospheric, terrestrial (including aquatic), glacial and marine environment;
- harmful changes to the distribution, quantity or capacity of reproduction of the species or populations of plant and animal species;
- additional risks to the species or populations of animal and plant species, endangered or threatened with extinction; and
- damage or serious risk of degradation of areas with special biological, scientific, historic or aesthetic significance.
The environmental impacts of proposed activities should be evaluated before they begin, according to the procedures in this document.
2.3 Environmental impact: concepts
In art. 8, the Protocol distinguishes between three grades of environmental impact:
- less than a minor or transitory impact;
- a minor or transitory impact; or
- more than a minor or transitory impact.
However, the Protocol does not define the parameter corresponding to "a minor or transitory impact". While acknowledging the difficulty in qualifying it, one must consider that the amplitude or intensity of an impact varies with the duration, location and intensity of activity and depends on the characteristics of the ecosystem. In most cases, it will vary with the circumstances of each case.
In general, an environmental impact corresponds to any physical, chemical or biological changes to the environment, caused by any form of matter or energy resulting from activities that directly or indirectly affect: a) health, safety and well being of the population, b) the social and economic activities, c) biota, d) the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment, and e) the quality of natural resources (CONAMA Resolution 01/86).
A direct environmental impact is any impact with effects that reach the environment resulting from a simple reaction of cause and effect.
Environmental impact of indirect effects are those resulting from a reaction that is secondary to the action or when part of a chain of reactions.
Cummulative Environmental impacts are a combination of effects arising from actions that are not absorbed by the medium, regardless of its time.
Irreversible environmental impact occurs when the factor or environmental parameter affected, after the action, does not return to its original condition (adapted from Tommasi, 1994).
2.3.1 Contribution to the Understanding of the Concept of Minor or Transitory Impact
PROANTAR adopted the following definitions for the concept of minor or transitory impact, adapted Tommasi (1996):
1-impact is considered minor or transitory, when it is observable for only a short period of time not to exceed the natural assimilative capacity of their local effects and, in particular, does not introduce exotic species in the region, so does not modify clearly visible natural habitats and tourism, local physiography, the aesthetic, historical, natural and tourism, key contaminants at levels above international standards, generate noise and odors that may disturb the normal behavior of species in the region and disrupt other activities and human safety and, consequently, even though it may require some mitigation measures, does not require recovery measures, or evaluation of locational and technological alternatives.
2-impact is considered more than minor or transitory, when all that the effects are short or long duration, and exceed the natural assimilative capacity of the local effects, which violate international agreements on the protection of Antarctic ecosystems and natural resources as well as cause risks to human security and, in particular, reduce species diversity, and hence require effective measures to mitigate / eliminate, including the evaluation of locational and technological alternatives, as well as recovery of affected environments. Activities that induce this level of impact are, among others, the construction of buildings, abandoned research stations, using the ice as drilling fluid, building new research stations, airport construction and operations of ships for passengers or transport (..., repairs, waste disposal, various leaks, navigation outside of allowed routes, unloading passengers in areas that are not permitted, etc.).
3-impact will be considered less than minor or transitory, when it is of very short duration, and does not induce any effect on the first item mentioned in any grade level and extent, intensity, etc., impact that does not require any mitigation measure and, in particular, that can be repeated without reaching the limit of the assimilative capacity of its effects, and that, strictly, is characterized as a small activity or the resulting need for a scientific/technological, as well as those that are to be held in seasonal or permanent stations for research. Impact will also be considered at this level in cases of aircraft operations using areas not previously prepared for their landing, small boats, the renovation of abandoned research stations and activities necessary for conservation of historical sites.
2.4 SYSTEMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT EVALUATION
The Madrid Protocol identifies three levels of environmental impact evaluation, namely:
- Initial; and
To enable the implementation of a project or activity in the Antarctic Treaty area, or even to modify an activity, duly approved by the Advisory Group and the Group Operations PROANTAR, the applicant must complete the form and forward it to the Ministry of the Environment.
Based on the information contained in the form, MMA/IBAMA carry out preliminary environmental impact evaluations - AIAP. If the analysis concludes that the project/activity will have a negligible impact, MMA/IBAMA develops a report to be submitted to GAAm. If the analysis of the project/activity concludes that the impact will be equal to a minor or transitory impact, the MMA asks the applicant that further information will be forwarded to "ad hoc" consultants, who will have 15 days to send their opinions to the MMA/IBAMA and, after consolidation, submitted to the GAAm. The opinion is examined, then the GAAm prepares its conclusive report on the initial environmental impact evaluation - AIAI and forwards it to SECIRM.
In the event that the project/activity will have a larger than minor or transitory impact, it will conduct the comprehensive environmental impact Evaluation - AIAA. In this case, the MMA calls for a consultant to prepare a Terms of Reference - TOR to be submitted to GAAm within 15 days. The TOR consists of a script on the minimum content of a comprehensive environmental impact evaluation, which should be appropriate to the specific project/activity proposed. On being approved by GAAm, the TOR is forwarded to the proponent of the activity.
The proponent prepares the Comprehensive AIA prior to the examination and forwards it to the GAAm which, in turn, refers it to SECIRM for dissemination to the public and the Treaty Consultative Parties. The deadline for forwarding any comments of the parties is up to 90 days, and the disclosure of the document should be made at least 120 days before the next meeting of the ATCM, at which time the previous Comprehensive AIA will be evaluated. This means that the GAAm should receive the AIAA at least 150 days prior before the next ATCM (which usually occurs in March or April of each year).
Any comments will be forwarded to the proponent for the preparation of the comprehensive final AIA to be submitted to GAAm and finally the SECIRM.
Figure 1 shows the systematic evaluation of environmental impact and the deadlines involved, showing the flow of information necessary for analysis and dissemination of these, as expected environmental impacts.
Key: IMT - Minor or Transitory Impact AIA - Environmet Impact Evaluation
The PROANTAR logo, since its inception, has undergone some changes to reach its current design, adopted in 2005 in order to better represent the purpose of the Brazilian presence in the Antarctic Continent.
The blue lines on the white circle indicates the projection of the meridians, which converge at the central point - the geographic south pole. The parallels are concentric circles at this point. Under this projection is the mapping of the Southern Cross constellation, as shown in the national flag, ie, corresponding to the appearance of the sky in the city of Rio de Janeiro, at 8:30 on the 15th of November, 1889. Formed by five-pointed stars, this constellation is used as a factor in location for sailors, and as its name indicates, points south, where the Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station is located.
The inscription "PROANTAR" refers to the initials of the "Brazilian Antarctic Program," which has the authority to plan and execute scientific logistics activities in a place so remote and inhospitable, always focusing on environmental issues. The inscription "CIRM" Inter-ministerial Commission for the Resources of the Sea, represents the college made up of various bodies and institutions responsible for conducting Brazilian activities on the frozen continent.
The use of national colors in overlapping concentric circles and other white background symbolizes the Brazilian presence in Antarctica, and stresses the participation of the country - through their universities, public agencies and private sector, civil and military - in this important program, which ensures our country’s recognition in the international Antarctic community and active participation in decisions that affect the continent.
Comprising all the lands south of parallel 60° S, Antarctica is about 14 million km2, equivalent to the area corresponding to the territories of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Peru and Bolivia, or the contiguous U.S. and Mexico.
The region has the largest ice cap in the world, covering about 95% of the Antarctic Continent. This cover has an average thickness of 2,700 m, varying between the limits of 2200 and 4.800m. This ice, about 35 million km3, represents about 70% of the planet's freshwater. The ice not only covers Antarctica, but also the surroundings. In winter, it forms a belt about 1000 km (pack-ice), increasing the surface by 18 million km2, whereas in the summer months, it recedes almost to the coast, except in the Weddell Sea and Ross Sea.
When the ice goes to sea and breaks off, it creates icebergs that are carried by ocean currents to disintegrate due to mechanical action of the sea and the temperature.
The separation of Antarctica from other continents, by rough seas, makes it the most isolated region of the planet and helps explain the lack of superior fauna.
On the other hand, in contrast to the continental landmass, the Antarctic seas are home to one of the most abundant biological communities on the planet.
The most nutritious maritime region of the world is located south of the Antarctic convergence (60° S), where krill proliferate, a crustacean about 5 cm long, which lies at the base of the food chain in the region.
The flora is extremely poor, consisting of some mosses and lichens.
The climate of Antarctica is characterized by extremely low temperatures in the central altitudes; the Russian station "Vostok", located 1240 km from the geographic south pole, recorded a minimum temperature of -89 º C. At lower altitudes near the coast and due to the influence of water, the average annual temperature is -10 º C. Strong and frequent winds, with an intensity of up to 100 knots, affect the weather and, together, contribute to the thinning of natural life on the continent.
Antarctica has a special significance for the international community in terms of environmental and health effects on global climate conditions.
Despite the Antarctic ecosystem having suffered environmental disturbances in the past, caused by commercial fishing and hunting of whales and seals, currently the ecosystem of the Antarctic terrestrial biota are the least modified structures, from the environmental point of view, on the entire surface of the Earth.
Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by discontinuity, inhospitable environmental conditions, low species diversity and very slow growth rates, and are fragile in the sense that they have little capacity to absorb changes without being profoundly changed. Marine ecosystems, in turn, are continuous, with less extreme environmental conditions and much higher species diversity than the mainland.
The Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty on Environmental Protection (Madrid Protocol) established several procedures to be followed in carrying out scientific research and logistical support for Antarctic stations, aiming to protect flora and fauna. It also imposes strict rules and limitations on waste disposal and preventive measures against marine pollution. It also requires procedures for assessing the environmental impact of activities in the region, including non-governmental organizations.
Brazil has adapted its activities to the rules of the Madrid Protocol, being in the forefront of the facts, with exemplary conduct in EACF in environmental management, including waste treatment and removal of all waste produced, and for having presented, along with Poland, the proposal that considers the Admiralty Bay, where the EACF is located, the first Antarctic Specially Managed Area (AAEG).
The purpose of AAEG is to ensure planning and coordination of activities in a specific area, reducing potential interference and promoting cooperation between the Consultative Parties, minimizing environmental impact. The AAEG of Admiralty Bay covers an area of approximately 370 km2, comprising the stations of Arctowski ( Poland), Ferraz ( Brazil ), Machu Picchu ( Peru) and the Refuge of the Republic of Ecuador ( Ecuador ) and Pieter J. Lenie (USA).
In 1950, the International Council for Science (ICSU), formerly the International Council for Scientific Unions, discussed the possibility of holding the Third International Polar Year. At the suggestion of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the concept has been extended to polar years around the globe, giving rise to the International Geophysical Year, which was to take place from June 1957 until December 1958.
The ICSU approved in 1957, the creation of the Special Committee on Antarctic Research, now the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), consisting of delegates from different countries engaged in Antarctic research.
This was an important milestone for the development of research on the continent, counting with the participation of: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, United States, France, Japan, Norway, New Zealand, UK, South African Republic and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
After closing the International Geophysical Year, participating countries have kept their Antarctic research stations, reaffirming their interest in the region, which led to the the Washington conference in 1959, where the future of the continent was discussed. The interest shown by countries operating in Antarctica, some of whom claimed territorial sovereignty over some parts of Antarctica, coupled with the situation created by the presence of USSR bases in the vicinity of areas adjacent to areas claimed by several nations, plus the concern by the U.S. for the establishment of a system of international cooperation for the Antarctic, bringing together the knowledge gained during the International Geophysical Year, hastened the search for an appropriate legal regime to resolve the complex situation created in the region.
As a result of the Washington conference, the twelve countries who participated signed, on December 1, 1959, the Antarctic Treaty, which became valid on June 23, 1961. It establishes a legal regime that extends to other countries, beyond the initial 12, from the possibility of becoming the consultative parties to the discussions that govern the "status" of the continent when showing interest or carrying out substantial scientific research.
The area covered by the Antarctic Treaty is located south of parallel 60oS. Its 14 articles are applied, devoted to principles such as freedom for scientific research, international cooperation for this purpose and the peaceful use of Antarctica, expressly prohibiting the militarization of the region, and its use for testing nuclear explosions or radioactive waste disposal.
Created in Washington on December 1, 1959.
Acceptance of Brazil, May 16, 1975.
Approved by Legislative Decree No. 56 of June 29, 1975.
Promulgated by Decree No. 75963 of July 11, 1975.
Published in the Official Gazette on July 14, 1975.
The Governments of Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, the French, Republic, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, the Union of South Africa, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America.
Recognizing that it is in the interest of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue for ever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord.
Acknowledging the substantial contributions to scientific knowledge resulting from international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica.
Convinced that the establishment of a firm foundation for the continuation and development of such cooperation on the basis of freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica as applied during the International Geophysical Year accords with the interests of science and the progress of all mankind.
Convinced also that a treaty ensuring the use of Antarctica for peaceful purposes only and the continuance of international harmony in Antarctica will further the purposes and principles embodied in the Charter of the United Nations.
Have agreed as follows:
1. Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only. There shall be prohibited, inter alia, any measure of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military manoeuvres, as well as the testing of any type of weapon.
2. The present Treaty shall not prevent the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purpose.
Freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica and cooperation toward that end, as applied during the International Geophysical Year, shall continue, subject to the provisions of the present Treaty.
1. In order to promote international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica, as provided for in Article II of the present Treaty, the Contracting Parties agree that, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable:
a) information regarding plans for scientific programs in Antarctica shall be exchanged to permit maximum economy of and efficiency of operations;
b) scientific personnel shall be exchanged in Antarctica between expeditions and stations; and
c) scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available.
2. In implementing this Article, every encouragement shall be given to the establishment of cooperative working relations with those specialised agencies of the United Nations and other international organisations having a scientific or technical interest in Antarctica.
1. Nothing contained in the present Treaty shall be interpreted as:
a) a renunciation by any Contracting Party of previously asserted rights of or claims to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica;
b) a renunciation or diminution by any Contracting Party of any basis of claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica which it may have whether as a result of its activities or those of its nationals in Antarctica, or otherwise; and
c) prejudicing the position of any Contracting Party as regards its recognition or non-recognition of any other State's rights of or claim or basis of claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica.
2. No acts or activities taking place while the present Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica or create any rights of sovereignty in Antarctica. No new claim, or enlargement of an existing claim, to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica shall be asserted while the present Treaty is in force.
1. Any nuclear explosions in Antarctica and the disposal there of radioactive waste material shall be prohibited.
2. In the event of the conclusion of international agreements concerning the use of nuclear energy, including nuclear explosions and the disposal of radioactive waste material, to which all of the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX are parties, the rules established under such agreements shall apply in Antarctica.
The provisions of the present Treaty shall apply to the area south of 60° South Latitude, including all ice shelves, but nothing in the present Treaty shall prejudice or in any way affect the rights, or the exercise of the rights, of any State under international law with regard to the high seas within that area.
1. In order to promote the objectives and ensure the observance of the provisions of the present Treaty, each Contracting Party whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings referred to in Article IX of the Treaty shall have the right to designate observers to carry out any inspection provided for by the present Article. Observers shall be nationals of the Contracting Parties which designate them. The names of observers shall be communicated to every other Contracting Party having the right to designate observers, and like notice shall be given of the termination of their appointment.
2. Each observer designated in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall have complete freedom of access at any time to any or all areas of Antarctica.
3. All areas of Antarctica, including all stations, installations and equipment within those areas, and all ships and aircraft at points of discharging or embarking cargoes or personnel in Antarctica , shall be open at all times to inspection by any observers designated in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article.
4. Aerial observation may be carried out at any time over any or all areas of Antarctica by any of the Contracting Parties having the right to designate observers.
5. Each Contracting Party shall, at the time when the present Treaty enters into force for it, inform the other Contracting Parties, and thereafter shall give them notice in advance, of:
a) all expeditions to and within Antarctica, on the part of its ships or nationals, and all expeditions to Antarctica organized in or proceeding from its territory;
b) all stations in Antarctica occupied by its nationals; and
c) any military personnel or equipment intended to be introduced by it into Antarctica subject to the conditions prescribed in paragraph 2 of Article I of the present Treaty.
1. In order to facilitate the exercise of their functions under the present Treaty, and without prejudice to the respective positions of the Contracting Parties relating to jurisdiction over all other persons in Antarctica, observers designated under paragraph 1 of Article VII and scientific personnel exchanged under sub-paragraph 1(b) of Article III of the Treaty, and members of the staffs accompanying any such persons, shall be subject only to the jurisdiction of the Contracting Party of which they are nationals in respect of all acts or omissions occurring while they are in Antarctica for the purpose of exercising their functions.
2. Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, and pending the adoption of measures in pursuance of subparagraph 1(e) of Article IX, the Contracting Parties concerned in any case of dispute with regard to the exercise of jurisdiction in Antarctica shall immediately consult together with a view to reaching a mutually acceptable solution.
1. Representatives of the Contracting Parties named in the preamble to the present Treaty shall meet at the City of Canberra within two months after the date of entry into force of the Treaty, and thereafter at suitable intervals and places, for the purpose of exchanging information, consulting together on matters of common interest pertaining to Antarctica, and formulating and considering, and recommending to their Governments, measures in furtherance of the principles and objectives of the Treaty, including measures regarding:
a) use of Antarctica for peaceful purposes only;
b) facilitation of scientific research in Antarctica;
c) facilitation of international scientific cooperation in Antarctica;
d) facilitation of the exercise of the rights of inspection provided for in Article VII of the Treaty;
e) questions relating to the exercise of jurisdiction in Antarctica; and
f) preservation and conservation of living resources in Antarctica.
2. Each Contracting Party which has become a party to the present Treaty by accession under Article XIII shall be entitled to appoint representatives to participate in the meetings referred to in paragraph 1 of the present Article, during such times as that Contracting Party demonstrates its interest in Antarctica by conducting substantial research activity there, such as the establishment of a scientific station or the despatch of a scientific expedition.
3. Reports from the observers referred to in Article VII of the present Treaty shall be transmitted to the representatives of the Contracting Parties participating in the meetings referred to in paragraph 1 of the present Article.
4. The measures referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall become effective when approved by all the Contracting Parties whose representatives were entitled to participate in the meetings held to consider those measures.
5. Any or all of the rights established in the present Treaty may be exercised as from the date of entry into force of the Treaty whether or not any measures facilitating the exercise of such rights have been proposed, considered or approved as provided in this Article.
Each of the Contracting Parties undertakes to exert appropriate efforts, consistent with the Charter of the United Nations, to the end that no one engages in any activity in Antarctica contrary to the principles or purposes of the present Treaty.
1. If any dispute arises between two or more of the Contracting Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the present Treaty, those Contracting Parties shall consult among themselves with a view to having the dispute resolved by negotiation, inquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement or other peaceful means of their own choice.
2. Any dispute of this character not so resolved shall, with the consent, in each case, of all parties to the dispute, be referred to the International Court of Justice for settlement; but failure to reach agreement on reference to the International Court shall not absolve parties to the dispute from the responsibility of continuing to seek to resolve it by any of the various peaceful means referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.
a) The present Treaty may be modified or amended at any time by unanimous agreement of the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX. Any such modification or amendment shall enter into force when the depositary Government has received notice from all such Contracting Parties that they have ratified it.
b) Such modification or amendment shall thereafter enter into force as to any other Contracting Party when notice of ratification by it has been received by the depositary Government. Any such Contracting Party from which no notice of ratification is received within a period of two years from the date of entry into force of the modification or amendment in accordance with the provision of subparagraph 1(a) of this Article shall be deemed to have withdrawn from the present Treaty on the date of the expiration of such period.
a) If after the expiration of thirty years from the date of entry into force of the present Treaty, any of the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX so requests by a communication addressed to the depositary Government, a Conference of all the Contracting Parties shall be held as soon as practicable to review the operation of the Treaty.
b) Any modification or amendment to the present Treaty which is approved at such a Conference by a majority of the Contracting Parties there represented, including a majority of those whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX, shall be communicated by the depositary Government to all Contracting Parties immediately after the termination of the Conference and shall enter into force in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of the present Article.
c) If any such modification or amendment has not entered into force in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph 1(a) of this Article within a period of two years after the date of its communication to all the Contracting Parties, any Contracting Party may at any time after the expiration of that period give notice to the depositary Government of its withdrawal from the present Treaty; and such withdrawal shall take effect two years after the receipt of the notice by the depositary Government.
1. The present Treaty shall be subject to ratification by the signatory States. It shall be open for accession by any State which is a Member of the United Nations, or by any other State which may be invited to accede to the Treaty with the consent of all the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX of the Treaty.
2. Ratification of or accession to the present Treaty shall be effected by each State in accordance with its constitutional processes.
3. Instruments of ratification and instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Government of the United States of America, hereby designated as the depositary Government.
4. The depositary Government shall inform all signatory and acceding States of the date of each deposit of an instrument of ratification or accession, and the date of entry into force of the Treaty and of any modification or amendment thereto.
5. Upon the deposit of instruments of ratification by all the signatory States, the present Treaty shall enter into force for those States and for States which have deposited instruments of accession. Thereafter the Treaty shall enter into force for any acceding State upon the deposit of its instruments of accession.
6. The present Treaty shall be registered by the depositary Government pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
The present Treaty, done in the English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each version being equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America , which shall transmit duly certified copies thereof to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States.
In faith that the signatories below, duly authorized, sign the present treaty.
Done in Washington, on December 1, 1959.
The Brazilian Antarctic Program - PROANTAR completed 32 years in January, 2014. Throughout this period, allowed the formation of hundreds of scientists and a vast body of research in different areas of knowledge. The Brazilian presence in Antarctica culminated on September 12, 1983, with the inclusion of the country in the select group of Advisory Members, putting him in prime position on the global stage and able to actively participate in important decisions about the future of the continent Ice.
In its three decades, PROANTAR could hold an annual average of twenty research projects in the areas of oceanography, biology, marine biology, glaciology, geology, meteorology and architecture, and allows the Navy of Brazil, with the support of the Brazilian Air Force , perform one of the largest logistics operations support, in terms of complexity and distance.
The Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station (EACF) created on February 6, 1984, located in Keller Peninsula, within the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, after 28 years supporting the scientific community, suffered in the early hours of February 25, 2012, a fire that affected 70% of its facilities. Remained intact refuges (isolated modules for emergencies); labs meteorology, chemistry and study the upper atmosphere; fuel tanks, two modules capture freshwater; Radio Station and Emergency helipad, which are isolated from the main structure.
Despite the incident, the scientific research continued with the available resources, the NPO "Admiral Maximian" NApOc "Ary Rongel" and the laboratories that were not affected by the incident. Moreover, the national scientific community, supported by the demonstrations of solidarity sent by other countries with which Brazil has strong cooperation in Antarctica, institutions sought partnerships with the aim of developing joint activities as well as use their Antarctic stations during the time reconstruction of EACF.
Began on October 6, 2012, Operation XXXI Antarctic was regarded as the most complex operation ever undertaken in the Antarctic region by Brazil, due to the logistical and operational aspects involving large numbers of human resources and material resources.
During OPERANTAR XXXI , the PROANTAR removed all debris and residues EACF , made the assembly of modules Antarctic Emergency , which will serve to support the activities while the future station is under construction , and also in conjunction with the scientific community , conceived a new Antarctic station with modern and suited to scientific demands for years to come , the height of the sixth world economy , facilities position now occupied by Brazil .
Aiming to ensure environmental preservation in Antarctica , fulfilling the rules contained in the Madrid Protocol , the PROANTAR adopted a series of guidelines and preventive actions . All activities in rubble removal were performed under the supervision of representatives of the Ministry of Environment and inspectors from other countries , and all waste generated by the fire , a total of about 900 tons collected selectively , were brought to Brazil .
The name of the Brazilian Antarctic Station is a tribute to the Commander - LUIZ ANTONIO DE CARVALHO FERRAZ. Born February 21, 1940, in Sao Luis, Maranhão, with a degree in Hydrography, Bachelor and Master of Science with a specialization in Oceanography (Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, USA).
He was in the Arctic and was part of the crews of British ships Bransfields and Endurance, on a trip to Antarctica (1975), and he participated in several symposia and represented Brazil in several international conclaves.
He took on the committee of inspection of the ships for Polar Research, which meant the former Thala Dan (Barão de Teffé NapOc) for acquisition by the Navy of Brazil, and was a member of the subcommittee charged with drafting the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR), under the responsibility of SECIRM.
Brazil lost two brave sailors, true heroes, who were involved in fighting the fire at EACF with the sacrifice of their own lives. Posthumous honors were given to military Carlos Alberto Vieira Figueiredo and Roberto Lopes dos Santos in Military Ceremony held at Galeão Air Base, on the morning of February 28, when he was promoted to the rank of Second Lieutenant and admitted to the "Order the Merit Protection ", and received the" Navy Distinguished Service Medal".
Lieutenants and Carlos Alberto Santos had in common, besides the passion for the sea, spontaneity, friendship and responsibility as competent military and good men. Were passionate about their families, and zealous in their professions. It is only fair to honor these two Brazilians who epitomize the dedication for science and Country.
Special Assistance for the Reconstruction of EACF:
CMG(RM1) GERALDO Gondim Juaçaba Filho
Phone: + 55 61 3429-1665
CC(EN) José COSTA dos Santos
Advisor Engineering and Inspection
Phone: +55 61 3429-1331
Interim complex that will house scientists and Brazilian military in Antarctica - the installation of modules Antarctic Emergency (MAE) in Keller Peninsula was completed. There are 45 modules in an area of approximately 940m ², arranged on the helipad and nearby EACF. Compounds for six dormitories, infirmary, kitchen, dining room, office and a lab RBMs were duly furnished and equipped with electric, sanitary system and fire fighting systems, besides having internet connection, access to mobile telephony and TV cable.
The Chemistry Laboratory, the VLF Module and Module Meteorological were linked to the MSA and are operative, allowing the resumption of scientific papers EACF.
The Antarctic Modules were designed to form a complete and self-sufficient system. In addition, 100% of the material is recoverable and transferable to other locations, in whole or in part, depending on the specifics of the new mission. The system was developed for simple and quick relocation, providing layout flexibility for future modules or division into separate facilities.
With a capacity to accommodate up to 66 people, the MAE are already harboring the Group-Navy Base and supporting research - to the reconstruction of the definitive buildings of Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station, thus maintaining the ability Country of continuing the permanent presence of Brazil in Antarctica.
The role of Architecture is to provide the required conditions so that human life can exist even in remote and inhospitable places on earth, safely and in harmony with the environment in which we live.
When we assess the architecture’s result of the epic human presence in Antarctica, we can divide its history into three major periods: historical times - when the goal was to occupy the White Continent at any cost -; the technological times - when the development of techniques and systems allowed a safer human permanence and the independence of the country of origin - and environmental times, when the acquired knowledge serves as a foundation to search for solutions in which the buildings cause the least environmental impact
Planning a new station in Antarctica goes further than simply proposing technological solutions of architecture and engineering that comply with the rules previously set. The new times require that, in addition to the environmental, economic and safety aspects, the socio-cultural and strategic constraints are also observed. However, the logistic of implementation and operation; the security issues (including both the construction and the operation); a needed easy maintenance; the functionality, flexibility and durability are also factors of crucial importance in the design of the concept project. Taking into consideration the current reality, it is also expected that the construction and operation of new buildings are efficient and cause the least possible environmental impact. Although the technological advance of media and means of transport has reduced distances and remarkably facilitated the way of life in Antarctica, a scientific station should be designed, according to some authors, focusing on the same principles of an autonomous house (Vale and Vale , 2000) or even as something that resembles a spaceship (WENDER 2013).
According to the Brazilian Antarctic Program - PROANTAR – the concept planning should be similar to the one used to build a small town, isolated from the things that make life easier in urban cities, in which living conditions should be provided with good quality and safety for all residents (ALVAREZ, 2003).
Among other aspects, the dependence on transport – being that due to take the material necessary for survival, or for the actions concerning the construction, use and operation of facilities - should outline all decisions, since this aspect is the most restrictive to the development of appropriate solutions to enterprises of this kind. However, power is also a factor of great importance, and the way it is obtained will be the key aspect that will dictate the standards of comfort and safety of the facilities in antarctica.
Water has similar importance. Although there is plenty in Antarctica, it is often in the form of ice or snow, which means it requires the use of energy to be transformed and become usable. Besides that, the “blue petroleum”, after being used, turns into wastewater that must be treated properly and eventually removed from the Continent.
The ability to obtain potable water and subsequently treat / reuse the wastewater was a major limitation to define how the logistic support would be provided in the Keller Peninsula, where the Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station is located (CFAS). There are two reservoirs that provide water as a result of the melting ice and snow. It can be used by up to 65 people in the summer and 35 in winter. The number of people the Brazilian Station can accommodate was defined by these parameters.
General Features of the New Brazilian Station
After the fire occurred in 2012, which destroyed nearly all the station, the process to hire a company that would develop a project to reconstruct the new facilities started with the elaboration of detailed Terms of Reference to carry out the architecture contest, which mainly aimed to give, besides the technical information needed, the Brazilian position on the new challenge: to build a scientific station that meets the expectations of the scientific community and serves as a reference for future constructions in Antarctica.
It is noteworthy that the development of technological research, done in the frame of the PROANTAR since 1987, though with some interuptions, was a major factor to define the parameters to be adopted for the new facilities. As the improvements for long made in the station were closely monitored, the Brazilian Inter-ministerial Commission for the Resources of the Sea could identify in advance appropriate solutions, both in relation to the technical constraints and the Brazilian economic and cultural reality.
The new facilities of the CFAS constitute an area of approximately 4,500 m² divided into six different sectors: private, social, services, operation / maintenance, laboratories and isolated modules. The area designated to the laboratories stands out in the architectural project. It is comprised of 14 units, designed to meet a variety of requirements, demonstrating the priority of PROANTAR for scientific activities.
The construction technique was developed based on the studies of Antarctic facilities, considering the constraints of the Keller Peninsula and the logistical limitations of the PROANTAR. So the strategy was to seek the maximum repetition of building components aimed at streamlining the manufacturing processes and consequently reducing the costs and time for final assembly in the Keller Peninsula, as well as the subsequent maintenance activities.
It is observed that the Brazilian experience emphasized the comfort conditions (heating, brightness, acoustic and psychological aspects). Studies were carried out using simulators and software as auxiliary tools to help in the decisions about the project’s efficiency. In the same context, the techniques adopted for water and sewage management were established based on previous studies and experiments conducted in CFAS. A system that reuses wastewater (gray water) was proposed together with the treatment of final effluent through a technique using UV radiation.
With regard to energy, it is emphasized that the use of diesel fuel still remains as the main energy provider for the CFAS’s operation. A set of engines powered by diesel is able to adequately meet the demand of the Station. However, this system will be associated with other complementary systems which will do the cogeneration (the use of heat generated by the engines and other electrical machines) obtaining energy from other renewable sources, with the use of photovoltaic and wind systems, managed through a Smart Grid, which will ensure efficiency and safety for the operation of the Station’s energy system. The gradual installation of alternative energy production systems should provide significant savings in the use of diesel, with a consequent reduction of the station’s carbon production. Having completed the design stage, a tendering process to hire a company that will construct the new station is underway. The construction is foreseen to start in the summer 2014/2015 and its completion in late summer 2016.
It is believed that the completion of this project represents an important advance in the Brazilian history in Antarctica, it is hoped that the success of its implementation serves as an example of human possibilities in that continent and pushes forward new Brazilian initiatives to expand the scientific activities in the White Continent.
- Supply required for scientific and logistical activities materials;
- Transportation researchers and maintenance crews and manning the Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station (EACF);
- Provision of necessary infrastructure to operational, logistical and administrative institutions participating in the development of the Action; and
- Maintenance and repair of naval and naval units participating in the Antarctic Operations.
|MEASUREMENT||UNIT OF MEASUREMENT||REFERENCE|
|Capacity Utilization Bed Researchers||%||2011||76|
|Availability Ship Support||%||2011||80,5|
Both terms are used and both are correct. “Antártica” is a word originating from the greek, containing the terms “anti” (opposite) and “arktos” (bear), where this last term refers to the polar star of the Ursa Minor (Little Bear) constellation.
The lowest temperature ever recorded was -89.2 ° C at Vostok Station (former USSR ) on July 21, 1983, and is the minimum temperature ever measured on Earth.
"Professor Besnard" Oceanographic Ship (NOc) of the University of São Paulo, the "Almirante Câmara" NOc, "Almirante Álvaro Alberto" NOc, "Barão de Teffé" the "Ary Rongel" NapOc, and "Almirante Maximiano" Polar Ship, Navy of Brazil.
All waste produced in EACF is collected and processed selectively. Organic waste is burned in an incinerator referred to in the "Environmental Care" section and the rest of the material (metals, aluminum, paper, cardboard, glass, plastics and PVC) is compressed and stored, returning to Brazil on board ships: "Ary Rongel" Oceanography Support Ship and "Almirante Maximiano" Polar Ship.
The research activities are proposed and developed by scholars from universities and research institutions from various regions of Brazil, in interdisciplinary research in the areas of Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Sciences and Life Sciences.
Roald Amundsen, Norwegian, on December 11, 1911.
The water that evaporates from the oceans is loaded in the upper atmosphere to Antarctica, where it forms ice crystals adhering to tiny dust particles. As more crystals join the crystal particles snowflakes are formed, which grow in various ways as they fall. The snow accumulates on the surface of Antarctica in ever deeper layers and gradually is transformed into ice.
The true boundary of Antarctica is the Antarctic Convergence, which is a defined area in the extreme south of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans, between 48º and 60º latitude south of this point, the cold currents flowing north from Antarctica mix with warmer currents south towards the Antarctic Convergence marking a clear physical difference in the oceans. For these reasons the water that surrounds the Antarctic continent is considered an ocean in itself, sometimes called the Antarctic or Southern Glacial Ocean.
No. The Brazilian Antarctic Program is managed by a partnership between ministries and a funding agency, namely:
- CNPq - funds the coordination of the implementation of research;
- Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI) - defines the scientific policy;
- Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA) - ensures compliance with international rules to minimize the impact of human presence in Antarctic soil;
- Ministério das Relações Exteriores (MRE) - responsible for the National Policy for Antarctic Affairs;
- Ministério das Minas e Energia (MME) - provides through Petrobras, oil specially developed for cold regions, for all media operating in the Antarctic; and
- Ministério da Defesa (MD) - operates in Proantar through the Navy Command, which hosts the Secretariat of the Inter-ministerial Commission for the Resources of the Sea (SECIRM), which manages the Brazilian Antarctic Program (Proantar) Operations planning and funding the Antarctic logistics segment of the program and the Air Force that performs with C-130 aircraft, flights Proantar support.
Yes, tourism in Antarctica began in the late 50's, when Chile and Argentina took more than 500 tourists to the South Shetland Islands , but the activity was established only in 1966.
The visits are concentrated in areas free of ice in the months between November and March visitors make short forays on the coast, visit scientific stations, historic monuments and animal colonies. Among the activities are also included mountain climbing, camping and diving.
Antarctica belongs to no one, as the very mention of the Antarctic Treaty in its Article IV: " No acts or activities taking place while the present Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica or create any rights of sovereignty in Antarctica. No new claim, or enlargement of an existing claim, to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica shall be asserted while the present Treaty is in force”.
CMG (RM1) MARCIO Renato LEITE - email@example.com
1T(T) EDUARDO ALVES - firstname.lastname@example.org
CF(RM1) Marcos F. DELDUQUE de Medeiros - email@example.com
Phones: 55 61 3429-1318 / 55 61 3429-1621
Fax: 55 61 3429-1336
Phone: 55 21 3136-7414 / 55 21 3136-7419
RIO GRANDE Phone: 55 53 3233-6603 / E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
RIO DE JANEIRO Phone: 55 21 2101-0920 / 55 21 2101-0921 / E-mail: email@example.com