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BRAZILIAN OCEN AND CLIMATE OBSERVATION SYSTEM

"BRAZILIAN OCEAN AND CLIMATE OBSERVATION SYSTEM" ACTION - GOOS/BRASIL

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This Action makes up the VIII Sectorial Plan for the Resources of the Sea (PSRM), and is coordinated by the Navy of Brazil, through the Hydrography and Navigation Directorate.


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CREATION

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The GLOBAL OCEAN OBSERVATION SYSTEM (GOOS) was created by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), in cooperation with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), in light of the provisions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and Agenda 21. Brazil has ratified the UNCLOS, and adhered to Agenda 21, recognizes the need to develop a Global Observation System, to better understand and monitor changes in the oceans and their influence.

Also, considering the extent of sea area that is of national interest, upon which sustainable development shall be ensured, the country has seen it fit to define its participation, by creating the GOOS/Brasil Pilot Program, approved by the Inter-ministerial Commission for the Resources of the Sea (CIRM), in its 133th Ordinary Session, held on 30/Apr/1997.

GOOS/Brasil Program became fully operational the collection, analysis and transmission of data across the entire oceanic region under Brazilian sovereignty and jurisdiction, generating products that bring socio-economic impacts to the country.


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CONTEXT

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The country's large urban populations are located mostly along the coast, and activities of socio-economic relevance are developed, influenced by natural phenomena and human actions. The impacts of these phenomena and actions, including climate change, are caused by integrated processes at the local, regional and global levels and, as such, require monitoring at the different scales.

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Therefore, knowledge of the role of the oceans and their components is crucial - as well as of the atmosphere and its interactions - in order to contribute to the improvement forecasting of the weather, climate and extreme natural phenomena, such as droughts, floods, storms, among others, that may have strong impacts on the lives of people and on the sustainability of local economies.

Currently, the Brazilian Ocean and Climate Observation System, coordinated by the GOOS/Brasil Executive Committee, is composed of a system comprised of four Observation Networks and a Research Project, namely:

- Network for collecting oceanographic and climatological data using moored and drifting buoys in the South Atlantic (PNBOIA);

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- Network for monitoring the mean sea level (GLOSS);

- Network for Monitoring Waves in Shallow Waters (ONDAS Network);

- Network for collecting oceanographic and climatological data using moored buoys in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA); and

- Project for monitoring the characteristics of the thermal structure, based on High-Density XBT lines, between Rio de Janeiro and Island of Trindade (MOVAR).


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OBJECTIVES

Expand and consolidate a system for observing the oceans, atmosphere and coastal zones, so as to improve scientific knowledge, make collected data available and provide support to studies, forecasts and actions, thus helping to reduce risks and vulnerabilities arising from extreme events, climate variability and climate changes affecting Brazil.


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GOALS

- Expand to 40 the number of devices Fixed data collection, installed and in operation;

- Expand to 60 the number of devices in operation drifting data collection;

- Keep 90% of operating devices installed in Fixed Networks Monitoring GOOS/Brasil (annual average); and

- Create a pilot project, nationwide, for monitoring CO2 in the South Atlantic and tropical.


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INDICATORS

ADMEASUREMENT UNIT OF MEASURE REFERENCE
DATE INDEX

Number of Devices Fixed data collection, installed and in operation.

Source: MB

UN 2011 24

Number of Devices drifting in data collection operation.

Source: MB

UN 2011 40

Rate Fixed operability of devices installed data collection (annual average).

Source: MB

% 2011 79

Pilot project created, nationwide, for monitoring CO2 in the South Atlantic and Tropical.

Source: MB

UN 2011 0

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INSTITUTIONAL MODEL OF EXECUTION

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The Coordination of the GOOS/Brasil Program is under the responsibility of Navy of Brazil (MB), through the DHN, with the participation of representatives from MEC, MME, MCTI, MMA, MAPA, SECIRM, IEAPM, Module Coordinators and Observation Network Managers.

The GOOS/Brasil Implementation Plan provides, in its very structure, the establishment of Observation Networks based on moored and drifting buoys, wave rider buoys, tide gauges and XBT probes for the collection of oceanographic and climatological data.


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"PIRATA" - PREDICTION AND RESEARCH MOORED ARRAY IN THE TROPICAL ATLANTIC

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The “Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic” (PIRATA) is a moored-buoy project in the equatorial zone, with the participation of Brazil, France and the United States of America. It is currently one of the major projects included in the scope of GOOS/Brasil, with the aim of evaluating the large-scale seasonal cycle in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean, as modified by ocean-atmosphere couplings such as "El Niño", whose economic and social impacts are significant for the coastal States. Data from this program have been widely used to predict the climate in the region, both by the Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC), the largest representative of this segment in Brazil, and by the Navy of Brazil.

Brazil, as a participant in the PIRATA Project, is responsible for the operation and maintenance of five moored buoys in the equatorial region and three moored buoys along the northeastern coast of Brazil. The main coordinator of PIRATA activities is the National Institute for Space Research (INPE).

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NATIONAL BUOY PROGRAM

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The National Buoy Program (PNBOIAS) is part of the GOOS/Brasil Pilot Program, and aims to collect meteorological and oceanographic data in near real time, in order to meet the needs of characterizing the environment and providing informations.

PNBOIAS is currently implementing two complementary buoys sub-programs, given the extensive area under Brazil's responsibility, according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), for the purposes of monitoring and forecasting the weather, as well as meteorological and oceanographic phenomena and climate regimes observed in Brazil.

1. Drifting buoys:

A network of drifters, tracked by satellite, which should cover most of the South and Tropical Atlantic.

Drifting Buoys parameters:

- sea surface temperature;

- surface corrent (SVP);

- atmospheric presure (SVP-B); and

- wind (SVP-BW).

2. Moored buoys:

A network of fixed buoys, consisting of eight buoys in total, seven of the platform type and one coastal, moored along the Brazilian coast.

The moored buoys will provide series of important information about sets of meteorological and oceanographic parameters at fixed locations. Drifting buoys will collect data on surface current speeds, sea surface temperature and atmospheric pressure over a wide portion of the South and Tropical Atlantic.

This moored buoy arrangement intends to monitor atmospheric phenomena, such as squall lines, tropical cyclones, eastern waves, frontal areas, extra-tropical cyclones, and oceanographic data on currents, equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves and the distribution of temperature and salinity.

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GLOSS/BRASIL PROJECT

The GLOSS/Brasil Project provides for the deployment and operation of a network of tide gauges, to monitor the mean sea level along the Brazilian coast. This activity is coordinated by the Navy's Center for Marine Hydrography (CHM), with the participation of public and private companies.

The GLOSS/Brasil project encompasses activities related to monitoring the sea level in Brazilian waters, with the following main objectives:

- Establish a Permanent Brazilian Network for Monitoring Sea Level, called the GLOSS/Brasil Network;

- Generate reliable data for determining the long-term trends of the mean sea level;

- Disseminate the data to international centers recognized by IOC/UNESCO;

- Promote interaction with other Brazilian technological and oceanographic programs; and

- Standardize the stations that currently make up the GLOSS/Brasil network, as well as data transmission, considering the available resources and equipment.

Monitoring Sea Level Networks (GLOOS)

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MOVAR PROJECT

The project to characterize the thermal structure of high-density XBT lines - MOVAR - aims to monitor the thermal structure between Rio de Janeiro and Island of Trindade, ES.

The defeat adopted as "standard" between RJ and Trindade crosses the entire axis of the Brazil Current at this latitude and, thus, provides monitoring of baroclinic flow changes. Since the Brazil Current is an important part of the South Atlantic anticyclonic circulation, its monitoring is extremely important because it contributes to the elucidation of changes in the intensity of its own subtropical gyre and its climatic implications.

The project is coordinated by the Federal University of Rio Grande Foundation (FURG), which is also responsible for the project's operation, as well as making data available on the GOOS/Brasil web page.


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NETWORK FOR MONITORING WAVES IN SHALLOW WATERS

The Network for Monitoring Waves in Shallow Waters aims to monitor sea waves on the Brazilian coast, in order to collect data to assist in the planning of maritime activities.

The project includes the installation of eight wave rider buoys along the Brazilian coast, in locations defined by the GOOS/Brasil Executive Committee; in principle, the positions will be close to the PNBOIA buoys.

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There is currently one wave rider buoy installed near Recife, maintained and operated by the Federal University of Pernambuco. By 2015 all wave rider buoys in the pilot project of the Network for Monitoring Waves in Shallow Waters will be moored.

Project Coordination is the responsibility of the Federal University of Rio Grande Foundation which, in partnership with other universities, is in charge of the Network's operation and maintenance.


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