The question of coastal management was brought to light, within the CIRM, parallel to the question of ocean resource, in the early 80’s, when a Program of Coastal Systems was inserted in I PSRM. The subject was highlighted in the versions of the PSRM that followed. Thus, we can say that the Brazilian government has given special attention to the sustainable use of coastal resources. This attention is expressed in the government’s commitment to the integrated planning of the use of these resources, seeking to systematize occupation of coastal spaces. To meet this objective, it conceived and implemented the National Coastal Management Plan (PNGC), instituted by Law 7.661, from 05/16/88, whose details and operationalization where the object of a CIRM resolution, approved after a hearing of the National Environment Council (CONAMA). In the CIRM, by Ministerial Resolution no. 0440, from December 20, 1996, the Coastal Management Integration Group (GI-GERCO) was created, coordinated by the Ministry of the Environment (MMA), instituted with the goal of promoting the articulation of Federal Acts in the Coastal Zone.
- Empowering institutional partners and society of the 17 coastal states in the face or distance modes, in the methodology of Project Orla;
- Develop methodology for the study and evaluation of vulnerabilities in the coastal zone, on a local scale;
- Develop proposal for monitoring and evaluating the results of the Project Orla; and
- Implement and disseminate Coastal Modeling System, adapted to the characteristics of the Brazilian coast.
- Coastal Zone is home to a mosaic of ecosystems of high environmental significance, whose diversity is marked by the transition from terrestrial and marine environments, with interactions that give a character of weakness and therefore require special attention of the public, as evidenced by their inclusion in the Brazilian Constitution as a national heritage area;
- Most of the world's population lives in coastal areas, and there is an ongoing trend to increased concentration of population in these regions. Health, welfare and, in some cases, the very survival of coastal communities is dependent on coastal systems, including wetlands and estuarine regions, and the corresponding reception and drainage basins and the waters near the coast, as well as the marine system; and
- The management of this broad universe of work involves, basically, building a collaborative model between the various levels and sectors of government and of society.
The PNGC has as primary aim the establishment of standards aimed at environmental management of the Coastal Zone of the country, laying the groundwork for the formulation of policies, plans and state and municipal programs. Therefore, it seeks the following objectives:
- The Promotion of the ordered use of natural resources and the occupation of coastal areas, supporting and optimizing the application of instruments of control and proactive management of the Coastal Zone;
- Establishment of the management process in a way that is integrated, decentralized and participative, in socio-economic activities in the Coastal Zone, in order to help raise the quality of life of its population, and the protection of its natural, historic, ethnic and cultural heritage;
- Systematic development of the diagnosis of environmental quality in the coastal zone, identifying potential, prevailing trends and vulnerabilities as an essential element for the process management;
- The incorporation of environmental considerations in sectoral policies aimed at integrated management of coastal and marine environments, making them compatible with PNGC;
- Effective control over the agents that cause pollution or environmental degradation in all its forms that threaten the quality of life in the Coastal Zone; and
- The production and dissemination of knowledge necessary for the development and improvement of Coastal Management.
The TRAIN-SEA-COAST Program aims to train, by means of specific courses, human resources that act in the coastal and ocean areas.
The Program, created and coordinated by the Division of Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea of the United Nations, it has a network of subsidiaries offering courses that deal with the problems that can be solved with training of personnel. There are currently eleven Train-Sea-Coast units, in ten countries: Brazil, Costa Rica, United States, Phillipines, India, Fiji Islands, United Kingdom, Senegal, Thailand and France.
The TRAIN-SEA-COAST Program in Brazil began in 1995 as the result of cooperation between three institutions:
- The Federal University of Rio Grande Foundation (FURG), which hosts the Program, providing a team and infra-styructure.
- The Inter-ministerial Commission for the Resources of the Sea (CIRM) which promotes the diffusion of objectives with governmental organs, managing financial resources for the development of the courses.
- The United Nations, through the Division for Ocean Affairs and Law of the Sea (DOALOS), responsible for the training of the team, validation of the courses and correct application of the methodology.